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Vaxxed: Smoking gun on autism in Black boys, others

“Vaxxed” makes the case that the CDC withheld critical information from research that could have established a potential link between autism and the MMR vaccine

Vaxxed film alleges Centers for Disease Control covered up data that MMR vaccine may be reason for upsurge in autism

 By MADLEN GRGODJAIAN, Contributing Writer

SACRAMENTO (CBM) — Californians in the state Capitol have been afforded the opportunity to view the controversial film, “Vaxxed” that alleges the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention covered up data that the MMR vaccine may contribute to autism in children, specifically African-American boys.

The film, “Vaxxed: From Cover-Up to Catastrophe,” opened Friday night in Sacramento at the Tower Theater, not far from the halls of political power. Last year a serious debate occurred in the state Assembly and Senate regarding vaccinating children before enrollment in school.

Gov. Jerry Brown signed Senate Bill 277 into law requiring school-age children in California to be fully vaccinated for 10 different childhood diseases before parents can enroll them in daycare, public or private school.

The bill passed in the Assembly and Senate even though opponents raised questions about the link between certain vaccines and spiraling autism and autoimmune diseases in children. According to the CDC, only one in 5,000 children in the U.S. contracted autism in 1975. Now, in 2016, one in 68 children are diagnosed with the disease.

“Vaxxed” makes the case that the CDC withheld critical information from research that could have established a potential link between autism and the MMR vaccine, which combines the vaccines for the measles, mumps, and rubella into one shot. The CDC collected data during a 2004 study.  It is this data from the MMR shot that has raised concerns about a link to autism — particularly among African-American boys who received the shot before their third birthday.

The root of “Vaxxed,” and the potential correlation between autism and the MMR vaccine was first uncovered by Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a gastrointestinal surgeon, and researcher from the U.K.

In 2000, Wakefield testified before Congress regarding the possible connection between the MMR vaccine, autism, and bowel disease in children. He first made the claim in a report published by him and a dozen co-authors in the February 1998 edition of The Lancet, a peer-reviewed British medical journal. It provided case histories for 12 children, exploring incidences of chronic enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and regressive developmental disorder—as well as immunization with the MMR vaccine.

“In eight children, the onset of behavioral problems had been linked, either by the parents or by the child’s physician, with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination,” the authors wrote.

The U.K.’s General Medical Council ruled that Wakefield committed ethical violations and failed to disclose potentially competing financial interests in researching a link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. The medical journal retracted the study in 2010 and Wakefield’s medical license was revoked.

Four years later Dr. Brian Hooker, a researcher and a father of an autistic son, contacted Wakefield regarding recorded conversations he had with Dr. William Thompson, a senior scientist at the CDC. Hooker says, during recorded phone calls, Thompson admitted to excluding vital data about the MMR study.

Thompson ultimately released a statement via his attorneys in 2014 admitting he and his colleagues omitted statistically significant information from a 2004 pediatrics study regarding the timing between the administration of the MMR vaccine and the onset of autism in children. The data, which Thompson said was largely discarded, showed the relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism.

Wakefield eventually met film producer Del Bigtree to discuss producing a documentary focusing on Thompson’s confession, which Bigtree went on to do with, “Vaxxed.”

Special Screening of “Vaxxed” in Compton

Thursday, May 19, 2016, 6:30 to 9:30 p.m.

301 N. Tamarind Ave., Compton, Calif. [MAP]

(310) 605-5500

Bigtree says the 91-minute film exposes how the CDC concealed and destroyed data from the study that could have proved a link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

“This is not an anti-vaccine movie,” Bigtree says in the documentary. “This is a movie about fraud, scientific fraud, committed by the CDC, the most important study body on health in the world. It’s not about Andy Wakefield, it’s not about me, it’s about Dr. William Thompson.”

Before producing “Vaxxed,” Bigtree, was a producer on the daytime network show “The Doctors.” He left that position to produce “Vaxxed” after doing extensive research on the CDC.

In April, actor and producer Robert De Niro, famous for his roles in films, “The Godfather Part III,” “Goodfellas,” and others, guested on the “Today Show” on April 13 this year to share his concerns about pulling “Vaxxed” from the Tribeca Film Festival.

Although the film festival is co-founded by De Niro, some of his colleagues and filmmakers at Tribeca advised him to drop “Vaxxed” from the lineup. On the “Today Show,” De Niro, who has a teenaged African-American son afflicted with autism, said afterward, he regrets pulling the documentary. He says he and his wife noticed a change in their son’s behavior and development nearly overnight after his son was administered the vaccine.

“There’s something going on with the CDC and the pharmaceutical industry,” DeNiro said. “There are inaccuracies and things you have to question. That was my reason for having the film. There’s something that is not quite kosher in all of this and that’s all I can say.”

The documentary features parents sharing similar stories to De Niro’s — how they noticed changes in their children’s speech, ability to walk, and comprehension  days and sometimes hours after receiving the MMR vaccine. The parents all report having healthy, active children prior to the administration of the vaccine at 12 to 18 months.

Other celebrities have also engaged in the national dialogue about “Vaxxed” since it began screening earlier this year. Los Angeles-based rap artist Snoop Dogg, after viewing “Vaxxed,” tweeted to his millions of followers — “A must C. Thanks. @bigu1.”

The film contains many incriminating statements from Thompson, recorded without his knowledge.

“I was complicit [at the CDC] and I went along with this. We did not report significant findings,” Thompson says in the film. “I have great shame now when I meet families with kids with autism because I have been part of the problem.”

Although Thompson stepped forward to expose the alleged CDC cover-up, he maintains that vaccinations are critical to public health and insists his intentions are not to diminish their importance.

“I want to be absolutely clear that I believe vaccines have saved and continue to save countless lives,” Thompson wrote in a statement. “I would never suggest that any parent avoid vaccinating children of any race. Vaccines prevent serious diseases, and the risks associated with their administration are vastly outweighed by their individual and societal benefits.”

Thompson says he and his team deviated from the original analysis of the study. The paper was the only study of the three autism studies he co-authored that didn’t have an external panel of consultants. Thompson said he and his colleagues met behind closed doors and decided to exclude reporting any racial effects from the findings. The other four co-authors, he said, destroyed documents.

But Thompson says he retained hard copies and computer files of the data without the knowledge of his colleagues. “Literally everyone else got rid of all their documents, so the only documents that exist right now from that study are mine,” he said. “It was the five of us behind closed doors for two years.”

Thompson turned over the documents, which amounted to 100,000 pages, to Rep. Bill Posey, R-Florida. In July 2015, Posey testified about the documents before Congress and is now calling for more action.

“Considering the nature of the whistleblower documents, as well as the involvement of the CDC, a hearing, and a thorough investigation is warranted,” Posey said. “So I ask, Mr. Speaker, I beg, I implore my colleagues on the appropriations committees to please, please take such action.”

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  • Joe May 20, 2016

    it seems that Jodi Hicks lied, no measles child died

  • Dale Evans May 16, 2016

    I am a data scientist. I don’t work with anything nearly as important as vaccine data but I can tell you that data in the corporate world is very easy to distort, especially when one is paid to do it and when one is expected to do it, and when no legal repercussions are expected. Laws protect vaccine makers from injury claims. No laws protect me if I choose to falsify data, which I do not do.

    The money that is earned/saved can purchase all sorts of “people” and even automated software that works 24/7 to control and distort information that is posted online, including in public forums such as this one. These “people” are known as sock puppets and the work they do is called astroturfing. This activity is extremely common online. Many governments and corporations engage in this. Public relations firms, university students in Israel, and organizations such as Pew Trust have been known to support these efforts.

    I read some of the studies that “Brian” posted above in this comment thread. These studies seem to be skewing results. Look at them closely. They even mention they are omitting data to achieve results.

  • elnura1 May 15, 2016

    FDA Vaccine Insert Lists Autism as Adverse Reaction:
    Read the list of adverse reactions.

    -CDC Chief Admits that Vaccines Trigger Autism

    -124 Research Papers Supporting the Vaccine/Autism Link

  • Suspicious May 15, 2016

    My suspicions are real. My first question is why cant we discuss vaccines? why are we stomped on if we mention them?

  • Paulette May 15, 2016

    Wow, that dr must get a real high from knowing that children are dying because of his proven falsified non-study! I believe every parent should be able to do what they think is right for their child, but they should be given true and accurate information and make informed decisions based on that, not conspiracy theories. Not bogus lies from a study that was proven wrong and is now a movie!! Ugggh. Start looking at the environment. Lead, depleting ozone layers, deficient minerals, and over sanitizing.

    • Charin May 15, 2016

      You clearly have not seen the movie. Your comment reveals that.

    • elnura1 May 15, 2016

      “Wow, that dr must get a real high from knowing that children are dying because of his proven falsified non-study!”

      “Fiona Godlee, the editor of the BMJ, says that the journal’s conclusion of fraud was not based on the pathology but on a number of discrepancies between the children’s records and the claims in the Lancet paper…”
      Remember the person who did the actual paperwork was Dr. Walker-Smith-not D. Wakefield.

      Please point out the fraud. Here is the report. It is a cohort study with 13 reachers:

      Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 1998; 351: 637-641.
      Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, et al.

      We did not prove an association between measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and the syndrome described.
      Virological studies are underway that may help to resolve this issue.

      If there is a causal link between measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and this syndrome, a rising incidence
      might be anticipated after the introduction of this vaccine in the UK in 1988. Published evidence is inadequate to show whether there is a change in incidence or a link with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. A genetic predisposition to autistic-spectrum disorders is suggested by over-representation in boys and a greater concordance rate in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins…

      We have identified a chronic enterocolitis in children that may be related to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. In
      most cases, onset of symptoms was after measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. Further investigations
      are needed to examine this syndrome and its possible relation to this vaccine.

    • Twyla May 15, 2016

      This movie is not about the 1998 Lancet study. And that study was never “proven wrong”.

  • Green May 15, 2016

    Shame on you for promoting vile anti autism rhetoric. You should be investigating how much money Andrew Fakefraud makes from putting black children in hyperbaric chambers.

    • Jennifer May 24, 2016

      Got any proof of your theory, Green? Or just talking like you’re important?

  • fred85730 May 15, 2016

    It’s no mystery, but it is a cover-up. The preservative called thimerosal which was used in vaccines and still is used in anesthesia was discovered to cause nerve damage in the infant’s brain leading to autism in girls and boys. Thimerosal is still being used in the anesthesia used during infant circumcision causing the rates of autism to double in boys who were circumcised in infancy. Black mothers have been told lies by white doctors and white women that being circumcised prevents their sons from getting sexually transmitted diseases and infections, such as HPV, HIV, and Hep C. The truth is these diseases are spread sexually by the infected vaginal fluids and semen/sperm into any open wound on the epidermis, not just the foreskin. Infant circumcising is the best time to use the procedure for ethnic cleansing, racial hygiene and sexist population control by cutting out too much prepucial nerves, extra shaft skin, and causing excessive trauma to the infants undeveloped brain and exterior reproductive organ parts. This causes physical and psychological sexual dysfunctions to develop after puberty without the knowledge of the children or their parents.

    • janel May 17, 2016

      Fred85730, why does this have to be a black vs white thing? I’m white, I did my homework, I did not circumcise my son. I will tell the facts to anyone who will listen. It has nothing to do with race. Just whether people take time to educate themselves. The information is out there for everyone. I can’t think of anyone in our society who doesn’t have access to their own info if they choose to do so. Stop blaming white people for everything.

  • Seabreezes1 May 14, 2016

    The movie is about the CDC hoax. Wake fields study was NOT a hoax.

    The senior coauthor of the Wakefield study, John Walker-Smith, took the GMC to the high court where Mr. Justice Mitting quashed the GMC findings in their entirety, writing that the GMC was inaccurate, used superficial and poor reasoning and reached wrong conclusions.

    The ONLY mistake anywhere was that the study included the wrong boiler plate disclaimer language regarding ethics…. to be clear, there were no ethical problems as there was no need for ethical approval and the parents totally supported the quashing of the GMCs findings.

    • Brian May 14, 2016

      Wakefield’s study was retracted as fraudulent.
      As was Brian Hooker’s (upon which this film is based).
      John Walker-Smith’s defense was essentially that Wakefield lied to him. I don’t know how you take that to mean that Wakefield’s study isn’t fraudulent anymore.

      • Jarrette Fellows, Jr.
        Jarrette Fellows, Jr. May 15, 2016

        The confession by Dr. Thompson’s at the CDC raises suspicions that must be investigated. This cannot be denied.

      • elnura1 May 15, 2016

        “Fiona Godlee, the editor of the BMJ, says that the journal’s conclusion of fraud was not based on the pathology but on a number of discrepancies between the children’s records and the claims in the Lancet paper…”
        Remember the person who did the actual paperwork was Dr. Walker-Smith-not D. Wakefield.

        Do you even know what the name of the study is?

        “John Walker-Smith’s defense was essentially that Wakefield lied to him”
        Where do you get this garbage? Exactly what was the lie?
        Exactly what was the fraudulent part of the study?

        What was the study’s conclusion. The paper’s retraction was purely political and the British High Court stated this:
        The judge found only one misleading statement in the paper, but it was not because investigations undertaken were unethical experiments described as gaining ethical approval in the paper according to the now-overturned findings on which the paper’s retraction was based. On the contrary, it was because investigations in the paper were described as being ethically approved when most were clinically indicated and required no such approval, although a few investigations were ethically approved. This may require an erratum, but it does not justify keeping the paper fully retracted.

        England and Wales High Court (Administrative Court) Decision Between:
        PROFESSOR JOHN WALKER-SMITH Appellant – and – GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL Respondent (Walker-Smith was part of the team of researchers on the report) Hearing dates: 13th. 14th, 15th, 16th & 17th February 2012.

        Read it so you know what you are talking about.

      • Twyla May 15, 2016

        That study by Dr. Andrew Wakefield and a dozen co-authors was not fraudulent.

      • Shawn Siegel May 16, 2016

        No, the Lancet study wasn’t retracted because it was fraudulent, and no such charges were even forwarded. Indeed, the Editor-in-Chief of the Lancet testified at the GMC hearing that the science of the published paper was good.

        Dr. Thompson admitted to meeting with his colleagues at the CDC and literally trashing race-related data. If that doesn’t open eyes, then unfortunately only witnessing vaccine damage in your own kids will.

    • Jarrette Fellows, Jr.
      Jarrette Fellows, Jr. May 15, 2016

      The confession by Dr. Thompson’s at the CDC raises suspicions that must be investigated. This cannot be denied.

  • Jim May 14, 2016

    Thank your for reviewing the moving and covering the story instead of just hitting all the required talking points like most all of the media has. This is the biggest story of our lifetime, journalists should be competing among themselves to dig up the next piece of evidence of CDC fraud, instead of waiting for the next people of pharma and corporate media propaganda to fall in their lap.

  • Brian May 14, 2016

    This movie is based entirely on a debunked hoax, and directed by a known fraudster and scam artist.

    If you believe what it says, you will be misinformed.

    • JP May 14, 2016

      Have you seen the movie, Brian? The CDC vaccine research malfeasance has not even been addressed yet by congress, so it can hardly be called a “debunked hoax”. And no one involved with making this film has ever even been charged with fraud, much less convicted. It appears you are the one who has been scammed and misinformed.

      • Brian May 14, 2016

        The movie doesn’t present anything new that hasn’t already been addressed. The premise of the movie was debunked in Sept. 2014 when Brian Hooker’s allegations were investigated and found to be false.

        Andrew Wakefield committed fraud and was stripped of his medical license for it.

        Even the “whistleblower” himself refutes many of the claims made in the video. If you want examples, feel free to ask.

        • Davis May 15, 2016

          Shove it in your rear end Brian. We do not need any astroturf here thank you. Simple Google searches far better than someone magically appearing to tell everyone ‘it’s all ok’.

          Learn about the two Merck whislteblowers, learn about Paul Thorsen, William Thompson. Hear a real Doctors opinion of Andrew Wakefield and how he was destroyed to protect Mercks Monopooly on the MMR vaccine. Be wary of anyone who says it’s all a misunderstanding.


          Learn about astro turf and shills. Protect your babies from the MMR2

          • Davis May 15, 2016

            Senator PAN ran when confronted by the VaxXed filmmakers

        • JP May 15, 2016

          Since you didn’t answer my original question I will have to assume that you have not even seen this film. And since you generously offered to provide examples, please provide proof (no blogs or opinion pieces, please) that Dr. Thompson’s admissions of CDC fraud have been proven to be a “hoax” in a court of law or by the United States congress.

          And while you’re at it, please supply proof that Andrew Wakefield was convicted of committing fraud, or even charged with committing fraud. Again – no opinion pieces, please.

        • elnura1 May 15, 2016

          You didn’t answer the question. Have you seen the movie? Yes or No!

    • Mark May 16, 2016

      why the hell would he leave his very promising careerer to be an outcast the rest of his life?

  • Allie May 14, 2016

    One small correction: the child in the photo cannot be receiving a measles vaccine because the measles-only vaccine was discontinued about 15 years ago. He would be receiving an MMR– the combination vaccine for measles/mumps/rubella that is apparently linked with autism in African-American boys who receive it before the age of 3.

    • Siobhan May 16, 2016

      My son received the single measles vaccine 5 years ago it is still widely available . However Mumps was withdrawn about five years ago. Many UK parents preferred single vaccine to MMR however were not able to proceed with a single vaccine schedule.

  • JanMarie May 14, 2016

    Thank you for your coverage of VaxXed! The health of our children are at risk. Please ask your representatives to subpoena Dr. William Thompson.

  • DC May 14, 2016

    Thank you very much for reporting this. The MMR isn’t the only vaccine tied to Autism….the DTaP is too. This vaccine WAS given to babies as early as 2 mo old, but now? Pregnant mothers are being injected. Autism is actually listed as a potential side effect to Tripedia’s DTaP too! Now, researchers are claiming that babies are showing signs of Autism in the womb. Gee, ya think? I don’t know about anybody else, but when I was pregnant with my 2 boys, it was well known that you could not even take anything for a headache because you risk injuring the fetus. Now? Our white coats are telling us that all goes – you can take mercury, formaldehyde, aluminum, and so much more all in a pretty vaccine vial that goes directly into your bloodstream. Once people get off the wheat and dairy that is totally messing with their brains they will be able to think/see much more clearly…..

    • Brian May 14, 2016

      The unvaccinated develop autism at the same rate as the vaccinated, so it’s obvious that vaccines don’t cause it.

      • John May 14, 2016

        Brian, can you share research data that points to your claim? I don’t believe this kind of study has ever been done.

        • Jarrette Fellows, Jr.
          Jarrette Fellows, Jr. May 15, 2016

          The confession by Dr. Thompson’s at the CDC raises suspicions that must be investigated. This cannot be denied.

        • Brian May 15, 2016

          One of the silliest anti-vaccine claims is that “there’s never been a study…” Of course there has! Hundreds of them! How many would you like me to list? Here’s a few-

          -Miller et al. (2004) studied 100,000 children in the UK and found no difference in autism and several other disorders based on thimerosal in vaccines
          -Madsen et al. (2002) studied 500,000 children in Denmark showing no difference in autism rates or age at ASD development based on vaccination
          -Honda et al. (2005) studied 300,000 people in Japan showing no difference in autism rates based on vaccination
          -Baxter et al. (2015) showed that, when using the same diagnosis criteria, the autism rate was the same 25 years ago as it is today

          • Mark May 16, 2016

            similarly i can head hunt lots of industry funded studies saying there is no increased cancer risk by using your mobile phone. lol. Keep talking on it – vaxx your kids and do us a favour. Bye.

          • Ahngali May 18, 2016

            Yes Amen!

      • julie megill May 14, 2016

        and your proof for that is where? there is NO study on unvax and vax children at all ( nor will there ever be ) .. so for you to say that is wrong .

        • Brian May 15, 2016

          One of the silliest and easiest-to-debunk anti-vaccine talking points is “there’s never been a study about ____”. Of course there’s been tons of studies! Literally millions of children have been studied. For example:

          —In 1991, Howson et al. reviewed hundreds of vaccine safety studies, and found no causal correlation between vaccines and autism
          —Taylor et al. (1999) studied 498 children in the UK showing no difference in autism rates or age at ASD development based on vaccination
          —Makela et al. (2001) studied 500,000 children in Finland showing no difference in autism rates or age at ASD development based on vaccination
          —Madsen et al. (2002) studied 500,000 children in Denmark showing no difference in autism rates or age at ASD development based on vaccination
          —Hviid et al. (2003) studied 450,000 children in Denmark showing no difference in autism based on thimerosal in vaccines
          —Verstraeten et al. (2003) studied 125,000 children in the U.S. showing no difference in autism and other disorders based on thimerosal in vaccines
          —Miller et al. (2004) studied 100,000 children in the UK and found no difference in autism and several other disorders based on thimerosal in vaccines
          —DeStefano et al. (2004) studied 2,500 children in the U.S. showing no difference in autism rates based on vaccination
          —Smeeth et al. (2004) studied 5000 people in the UK and found no difference in autism and several other disorders based on vaccination
          —Honda et al. (2005) studied 300,000 people in Japan showing no difference in autism rates based on vaccination
          —Fombonne et al. (2006) studied 28,000 children in Canada showing no difference in autism rates and other developmental disorders based on vaccination
          —Richler et al. (2006) studied 300 people with autism in the U.S. and found no difference in regressive autism rates based on vaccination
          —Uchiyama et al (2007) studied 900 people with autism in Japan and found no difference in regressive autism rates based on vaccination
          —Price et al. (2010) and DeStefano et al. (2013) studied 1000 children in the U.S. and found no difference in either classical or regressive autism rates, or other forms of ASD, based on thimerosal or other ingredients in vaccines
          —Kuwaik et al. (2014) studied autism rates among those who had older siblings with autism, showing no difference based on vaccination even with genetic predispositions to autism
          —Jain et al. (2015) replicated the study with far more people and got the same result
          —Baxter et al. (2015) showed that, when using the same diagnosis criteria, the autism rate was the same 25 years ago as it is today
          —Gadad et al. (2015) showed no difference in autism rates in rhesus monkeys based on vaccination, and their brains were dissected just to make certain. Also, this study was funded by anti-vaccine groups

          Want more?

          • elnura1 May 15, 2016

            I want to see Independent studies, not industry based ones or poorly done studies. Could you also provide links.

            Here’s something for your to see:
            -CDC Chief Admits that Vaccines Trigger Autism

          • V May 15, 2016

            This is a link to 123 papers and studies that find a link with vaccines and autism Want more?

          • Janice May 16, 2016
          • V May 16, 2016

            30 Studies that show that vaccines can cause autism. Want more?

            Evidence that vaccines can cause autism

            It is an often repeated fallacy that there is no research that supports the supposition that vaccines can cause autism. This talking point is most often repeated by medical personnel and public health officials who have simply never been told that these studies exist, and in some cases by those who refuse to read the information when it is offered to them, so they continue to labor under the false assumption that vaccine autism causation is merely an “internet rumor” or a result of one paper that was published in 1998.

            This untruth was again testified to during the HHS Committee hearings

            In fact, the first research paper to offer evidence that vaccines may cause autism was THE first paper ever written on autism. In the 1930’s, Child Psychiatrist Leo Kanner discovered 11 children over the course of several years who displayed a novel set of neurological symptoms that had never been described in the medical literature, where children were withdrawn, uncommunicative and displayed similar odd behaviors. This disorder would become known as “autism.” In the paper, Dr. Kanner noted that onset of the disorder began following the administration of a small pox vaccine. This paper, was published in 1943, and evidence that vaccination causes an ever increasing rate of neurological and immunological regressions, including autism, has been mounting from that time until now.

            Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact

            Leo Kanner, Johns Hopkins University, 1943

            “Since 1938, there have come to our attention a number of children whose condition differs so markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far, that each case merits – and, I hope, will eventually receive – at detailed consideration of its fascinating peculiarities.”

            All of Kanners cases were born after, and began to appear following, the introduction of Eli Lilly’s new form of water soluble mercury in the late 1920s used as an anti-fungal in forestry, a wood treatment product in the lumber industry and as a disinfectant and anti-bacterial in the medical industry under the name of “Thimerosal” that was included in vaccines.

            For further information on the early evidence of a vaccine/connection, I recommend reading Dr. Bryan Jepson’s book, “Changing the Course of Autism: A Scientific Approach for Parents and Physicians,” as well as Mark Blaxill and Dan Olmseted’s new book “The Age of Autism: Mercury, Medicine, and a Man-made Epidemic.”

            As I testified to at the hearing, there is abundant research supporting the vaccine autism link. I have included 49 research papers for your review, and only included research published in the last ten years or so. This is by no means a complete list, but it one that I have been compiling for the last few years as relevant research came to my attention. I have ONLY included autism related information, not research on other vaccine injuries of which there are many.

            As you can see, the medical professionals testifying that there is no scientific support for the vaccine/autism causation theory are uninformed about the current state of the science. When vaccination decisions are made based on an uninformed opinion, it means serious potential damage to the patient, and because of the law preventing lawsuits for vaccine injury, it also means that the uninformed medical professionals making bad recommendations CANNOT be held accountable in any way for giving the patient bad information.

            Parents want to know if their child can develop autism from their vaccines. If they believe that the answer is yes, and the risk of brain injury from vaccination is higher than their risk from a disease, it is their right to decline vaccination for themselves and their children with out coercion.

            Patients MUST be able to make their own informed vaccine decisions, because often, they know more about potential vaccine risks that even top public health officials do.

            1. Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism

            Annals of Epidemiology , Vol. 19, No. 9 ABSTRACTS (ACE), September 2009: 651-680,
            p. 659

            CM Gallagher, MS Goodman, Graduate Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY

            PURPOSE: Universal newborn immunization with hepatitis B vaccine was recommended in 1991; however, safety findings are mixed. The Vaccine Safety Datalink Workgroup reported no association between hepatitis B vaccination at birth and febrile episodes or neurological adverse events. Other studies found positive associations between
            hepatitis B vaccination and ear infection, pharyngitis, and chronic arthritis; as well as receipt of early intervention/special education services (EIS); in probability samples of U.S. children. Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) comprise a growing caseload for EIS. We evaluated the association between hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and parental report of ASD.

            METHODS: This cross-sectional study used U.S. probability samples obtained from National Health Interview Survey 1997-2002 datasets. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the effect of neonatal hepatitis B vaccination on ASD risk among boys age 3-17 years with shot records, adjusted for race, maternal education, and two-parent household.

            RESULTS: Boys who received the hepatitis B vaccine during the first month of life had 2.94 greater odds for ASD (nZ31 of 7,486; OR Z 2.94; p Z 0.03; 95% CI Z 1.10, 7.90)
            compared to later- or unvaccinated boys. Non-Hispanic white boys were 61% less likely to have ASD (ORZ0.39; pZ0.04; 95% CIZ0.16, 0.94) relative to non-white boys.

            CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine had a 3-fold greater risk of ASD; risk was greatest for non-white boys.

            2. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

            Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2006

            Robert Natafa, Corinne Skorupkab, Lorene Ametb, Alain Lama, Anthea Springbettc and Richard Lathed, aLaboratoire Philippe Auguste, Paris, France, Association ARIANE, Clichy, France, Department of Statistics, Roslin Institute, Roslin, UK, Pieta Research,

            This new study from France utilizes a new and sophisticated measurement for environmental toxicity by assessing porphyrin levels in autistic children. It provides clear and unequivocal evidence that children with autism spectrum disorders are more toxic than their neurotypical peers.

            Excerpt: “Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups…the elevation was significant. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.”

            Abstract: To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002–2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P 2-fold,
            (3) and produced a delayed and persistent rise (≥2-fold) in baseline Ca2+. THI (100nM,
            5min) recruited more ATP responders, shortened the ATP-mediated Ca2+ transient (≥1.4-
            fold) and produced a delayed rise (≥3-fold) in the Ca2+ baseline, mimicking Ry. THI and
            Ry, in combination, produced additive effects leading to uncoupling of IP3R and RyR1
            signals. THI altered ATP-mediated IL-6 secretion, initially enhancing the rate of but
            suppressing overall cytokine secretion in DCs. DCs are exquisitely sensitive to THI, with
            one mechanism involving the uncoupling of positive and negative regulation of Ca2+
            signals contributed by RyR1.

            5. Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal.

            Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009 Mar;61(2):133-6. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

            Branch DR, Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

            A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial. Autism occurs approximately four times more frequently in males compared to females; thus, studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-selective effects. The present study was originally undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thimersosal in male and female CD1 mice. However, during the limited MTD studies, it became apparent that thimerosal has a differential MTD that depends on whether the mouse is male or female. At doses of 38.4-76.8mg/kg using 10% DMSO as diluent, seven of seven male mice compared to zero of seven female mice tested succumbed to thimerosal. Although the thimerosal levels used were very high, as we were originally only trying to determine MTD, it was completely unexpected to observe a difference of the MTD between male and female mice. Thus, our studies, although not directly addressing the controversy surrounding thimerosal and autism, and still preliminary due to small numbers of mice examined, provide, nevertheless, the first report of gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal and indicate that any future studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-specific differences.

            6. Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

            Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug 2005.

            Thomas Burbacher, PhD [University of Washington].

            This study demonstrates clearly and unequivocally that ethyl mercury, the kind of mercury found in vaccines, not only ends up in the brain, but leaves double the amount of inorganic mercury as methyl mercury, the kind of mercury found in fish. This work is groundbreaking because little is known about ethyl mercury, and many health authorities have asserted that the mercury found in vaccines is the “safe kind.” This study also delivers a strong rebuke of the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation in 2004 to no longer pursue the mercury-autism connection.

            Excerpt: “A recently published IOM review (IOM 2004) appears to have abandoned the earlier recommendation [of studying mercury and autism] as well as back away from the American Academy of Pediatrics goal [of removing mercury from vaccines]. This approach is difficult to understand, given our current limited knowledge of the toxicokinetics and developmental neurotoxicity of thimerosal, a compound that has been (and will continue to be) injected in millions of newborns and infants.”

            7. Increases in the number of reactive glia in the visual cortex of Macaca fascicularis following subclinical long-term methyl mercury exposure.

            Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1994

            Charleston JS, Bolender RP, Mottet NK, Body RL, Vahter ME, Burbacher TM., Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Washington

            The number of neurons, astrocytes, reactive glia, oligodendrocytes, endothelia, and pericytes in the cortex of the calcarine sulcus of adult female Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) and mercuric chloride (inorganic mercury; IHg) has been estimated by use of the optical volume fractionator stereology technique. Four groups of monkeys were exposed to MeHg (50 micrograms Hg/kg body wt/day) by mouth for 6, 12, 18, and 12 months followed by 6 months without exposure (clearance group). A fifth group of monkeys was administered IHg (as HgCl2; 200 micrograms Hg/kg body wt/day) by constant rate intravenous infusion via an indwelling catheter for 3 months. Reactive glia showed a significant increase in number for every treatment group, increasing 72% in the 6-month, 152% in the 12-month, and 120% in the 18-month MeHg exposed groups, and the number of reactive glia in the clearance group remained elevated (89%). The IHg exposed group showed a 165% increase in the number of reactive glia. The IHg exposed group and the clearance group had low levels of MeHg present within the tissue; however, the level of IHg was elevated in both groups. These results suggest that the IHg may be responsible for the increase in reactive glia. All other cell types, including the neurons, showed no significant change in number at the prescribed exposure level and durations. The identities of the reactive glial cells and the implications for the long-term function and survivability of the neurons due to changes in the glial population following subclinical long-term exposure to mercury are discussed.

            8. Neuroglial Activation and Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism

            Annals of Neurology, Feb 2005.

            Diana L. Vargas, MD [Johns Hopkins University].

            This study, performed independently and using a different methodology than Dr. Herbert (see above) reached the same conclusion: the brains of autistic children are suffering from inflammation.

            Excerpt: “Because this neuroinflammatory process appears to be associated with an ongoing and chronic mechanism of CNS dysfunction, potential therapeutic interventions should focus on the control of its detrimental effects and thereby eventually modify the clinical course of autism.”

            9. Autism: A Brain Disorder, or A Disorder That Affects the Brain?

            Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2005

            Martha R. Herbert M.D., Ph.D., Harvard University

            Autism is defined behaviorally, as a syndrome of abnormalities involving language, social reciprocity and hyperfocus or reduced behavioral flexibility. It is clearly heterogeneous, and it can be accompanied by unusual talents as well as by impairments, but its underlying biological and genetic basis in unknown. Autism has been modeled as a brain-based, strongly genetic disorder, but emerging findings and hypotheses support a broader model of the condition as a genetically influenced and systemic. These include imaging, neuropathology and psychological evidence of pervasive (and not just specific) brain and phenotypic features; postnatal evolution and chronic persistence of brain, behavior and tissue changes (e.g. inflammation) and physical illness symptomatology (e.g. gastrointestinal, immune, recurrent infection); overlap with other disorders; and reports of rate increases and improvement or recovery that support a role for modulation of the condition by environmental factors (e.g. exacerbation or triggering by toxins, infectious agents, or others stressors, or improvement by treatment). Modeling autism more broadly encompasses previous work, but also encourages the expansion of research and treatment to include intermediary domains of molecular and cellular mechanisms, as well as chronic tissue, metabolic and somatic changes previously addressed only to a limited degree. The heterogeneous biologies underlying autism may conceivably converge onto the autism profile via multiple mechanisms on the one hand and processing and connectivity abnormalities on the other may illuminate relevant final common pathways and contribute to focusing on the search for treatment targets in this biologically and etiologically heterogeneous behavioral syndrome.

            10. Activation of Methionine Synthase by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Dopamine: a Target for Neurodevelopmental Toxins and Thimerosal

            Molecular Psychiatry, July 2004.

            Richard C. Deth, PhD [Northeastern University].

            This study demonstrates how Thimerosal inhibits methylation, a central driver of cellular communication and development. Excerpt:

            “The potent inhibition of this pathway [methylation] by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum, and thimerosal suggests it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

            11. Validation of the Phenomenon of Autistic Regression Using Home Videotapes

            Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005

            Emily Werner, PhD; Geraldine Dawson, PhD, University of Washington

            Objective To validate parental report of autistic regression using behavioral data coded from home videotapes of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) vs typical development taken at 12 and 24 months of age.

            Design Home videotapes of 56 children’s first and second birthday parties were collected from parents of young children with ASD with and without a reported history of regression and typically developing children. Child behaviors were coded by raters blind to child diagnosis and regression history. A parent interview that elicited information about parents’ recall of early symptoms from birth was also administered.

            Setting Participants were recruited from a multidisciplinary study of autism conducted at a major university.

            Participants Fifteen children with ASD with a history of regression, 21 children with ASD with early-onset autism, and 20 typically developing children and their parents participated.

            Main Outcome Measures Observations of children’s communicative, social, affective, repetitive behaviors, and toy play coded from videotapes of the toddlers’ first and second birthday parties.

            Results Analyses revealed that infants with ASD with regression show similar use of joint attention and more frequent use of words and babble compared with typical infants at 12 months of age. In contrast, infants with ASD with early onset of symptoms and no regression displayed fewer joint attention and communicative behaviors at 12 months of age. By 24 months of age, both groups of toddlers with ASD displayed fewer instances of word use, vocalizations, declarative pointing, social gaze, and orienting to name as compared with typically developing 24-month-olds.

            Parent interview data suggested that some children with regression displayed difficulties in regulatory behavior before the regression occurred.

            Conclusion This study validates the existence of early autistic regression.

            UPDATE: Since the Poling Case, this has become a popular link, so I will update it with more research and better information so that you can actually find and read the articles. Below is a partial list that I will keep adding to.

            12. Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set

            Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 22, No. 11, 1308-1311 (2007)

            M. Catherine DeSoto, PhD, Robert T. Hitlan, PhD -Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa

            Excerpt: “We have reanalyzed the data set originally reported by Ip et al. in 2004 and have found that the original p value was in error and that a significant relation does exist between the blood levels of mercury and diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the hair sample analysis results offer some support for the idea that persons with autism may be less efficient and more variable at eliminating mercury from the blood.”


            The question of what is leading to the apparent increase in autism is of great importance. Like the link between aspirin and heart attack, even a small effect can have major health implications. If there is any link between autism and mercury, it is absolutely crucial that the first reports of the question are not falsely stating that no link occurs. We have reanalyzed the data set originally reported by Ip et al. in 2004 and have found that the original p value was in error and that a significant relation does exist between the blood levels of mercury and diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the hair sample analysis results offer some support for the idea that persons with autism may be less efficient and more variable at eliminating mercury from the blood.

            13. Developmental Regression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Child With Autism

            Journal of Child Neurology / Volume 21, Number 2, February 2006
            Jon S. Poling, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery
            Johns Hopkins Hospital

            This article showed that 38% of Kennedy Krieger Institute autism patients studied had one marker for impaired oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial dysfunction), and 47% had a second marker.

            Excerpt: “Children who have (mitochondrial-related) dysfunctional cellular energy metabolism might be more prone to undergo autistic regression between 18 and 30 months of age if they also have infections or immunizations at the same time.”

            14. Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels

            American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (2): 73-84, 2008

            Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska, – Dept of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

            Shows a potential link between mercury and the autopsied brains of young people with autism. A marker for oxidative stress was 68.9% higher in autistic brain issue than controls (a statistically significant result), while mercury levels were 68.2% higher.

            Excerpt: The preliminary data suggest a need for more extensive studies of oxidative stress, its relationship to the environmental factors and its possible attenuation by antioxidants in autism.”

            15. Large Brains in Autism: The Challenge of Pervasive Abnormality

            The Neuroscientist, Volume 11, Number 5, 2005.

            Martha Herbert, MD, PhD, Harvard University

            This study helps refute the notion that the brains of autistic children are simply wired differently and notes, “neuroinflammation appears to be present in autistic brain tissue from childhood through adulthood.” Dr. Herbert suggests that chronic disease or an external environmental source (like heavy metals) may be causing the inflammation.

            Excerpt: “Oxidative stress, brain inflammation, and microgliosis have been much documented in association with toxic exposures including various heavy metals…the awareness that the brain as well as medical conditions of children with autism may be conditioned by chronic biomedical abnormalities such as inflammation opens the possibility that meaningful biomedical interventions may be possible well past the window of maximal neuroplasticity in early childhood because the basis for assuming that all deficits can be attributed to fixed early developmental alterations in neural architecture has now been undermined.”


            The most replicated finding in autism neuroanatomy—a tendency to unusually large brains—has seemed paradoxical in relation to the specificity of the abnormalities in three behavioral domains that define autism. We now know a range of things about this phenomenon, including that brains in autism have a growth spurt shortly after birth and then slow in growth a few short years afterward, that only younger but not older brains are larger in autism than in controls, that white matter contributes disproportionately to this volume increase and in a nonuniform pattern suggesting postnatal pathology, that functional connectivity among regions of autistic brains is diminished, and that neuroinflammation (including microgliosis and astrogliosis) appears to be present in autistic brain tissue from childhood through adulthood. Alongside these pervasive brain tissue and functional abnormalities, there have arisen theories of pervasive or widespread neural information processing or signal coordination abnormalities (such as weak central coherence, impaired complex processing, and underconnectivity), which are argued to underlie the specific observable behavioral features of autism. This convergence of findings and models suggests that a systems- and chronic disease–based reformulation of function and pathophysiology in autism needs to be considered, and it opens the possibility for new treatment targets.

            16. Evidence of Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Insult in Autism

            Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Nov-Dec 2006.

            Janet Kern, Anne Jones, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas,
            Texas, USA

            “This article discusses the evidence for the case that some children with autism may become autistic from neuronal cell death or brain damage sometime after birth as result of insult; and addresses the hypotheses that toxicity and oxidative stress may be a cause of neuronal insult in autism… the article discusses what may be happening over the course of development and the multiple factors that may interplay and make these children more vulnerable to toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult.”


            According to the Autism Society of America, autism is now considered to be an epidemic. The increase in the rate of autism revealed by epidemiological studies and government reports implicates the importance of external or environmental factors that may be changing. This article discusses the evidence for the case that some children with autism may become autistic from neuronal cell death or brain damage sometime after birth as result of insult; and addresses the hypotheses that toxicity and oxidative stress may be a cause of neuronal insult in autism. The article first describes the Purkinje cell loss found in
            autism, Purkinje cell physiology and vulnerability, and the evidence for postnatal cell loss. Second, the article describes the increased brain volume in autism and how it may be related to the Purkinje cell loss. Third, the evidence for toxicity and oxidative
            stress is covered and the possible involvement of glutathione is discussed. Finally, the article discusses what may be happening over the course of development and the multiple factors that may interplay and make these children more vulnerable to toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult.

            17. Oxidative Stress in Autism

            Pathophysiology, 2006.

            Abha Chauhan, Ved Chauhan

            This study provides a helpful overview of the growing evidence supporting the link between oxidative stress and autism.

            Excerpt: “Upon completion of this article, participants should be able to: 1. Be aware of laboratory and clinical evidence of greater oxidative stress in autism. 2. Understand how gut, brain, nutritional, and toxic status in autism are consistent with greater oxidative stress. 3. Describe how anti-oxidant nutrients are used in the contemporary treatment of autism.”

            18. Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors

            Neurotoxicology, Jan 2005.

            S. Jill James, PhD [University of Arkansas].

            This recent study demonstrates that Thimerosal lowers or inhibits the body’s ability to produce Glutathione, an antioxidant and the body’s primary cellular-level defense against mercury.

            Excerpt: “Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular Glutathione in both cell lines…The potential effect of Glutathione or N-acetylcysteine against mercury toxicity warrants further research as possible adjunct therapy to individuals still receiving Thimerosal-containing vaccines.”

            19. Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice

            Neuromolecular Medicine, 2007

            Christopher Shaw, Ph.D. [Department of Ophthalmology and Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada]

            This study demonstrates the extreme toxicity of the aluminum adjuvant used as a preservative in vaccines.

            Excerpt: “testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength measured…Significant cognitive deficits in water-maze learning were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group…Apoptotic neurons were identified in aluminum-injected animals that showed significantly increased activated caspase-3 labeling in lumbar spinal cord (255%) and primary motor cortex (192%) compared with the controls. Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord.

            20. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas

            Health & Place, 2006

            Raymond F. Palmer, University of Texas Health Science Center

            This study demonstrated the correlation between environmental mercury and autism rates in Texas.

            Excerpt: “On average, for each 1,000 lb of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. The association between environmentally released mercury and special education rates were fully mediated by increased autism rates. This ecological study suggests the need for further research regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism.”

            21. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the SF Bay Area

            Environmental Health Perspectives – Vol. 114 No. 9, September, 2006

            Gayle Windham, Div. of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services

            284 ASD children & 657 controls, born in 1994 in Bay Area, were assigned exposure levels by birth tract for 19 chemicals. Risks for autism were elevated by 50% in tracts with the highest chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. The highest risk compounds were mercury, cadmium, nickel, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride, and the risk from heavy metals was almost twice as high as solvents.

            Excerpt: “Our results suggest a potential association between autism and estimated metal concentrations, and possibly solvents, in ambient air around the birth residence.”

            22. A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorder

            Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2007

            David A. Geier, Mark R. Geier

            This study reviewed the case histories and medical profiles of nine autistic children and concluded that eight of the nine children were mercury toxic and this toxicity manifested itself in a manner consistent with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

            Excerpt: “…these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.”


            Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett’s syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal- containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)- immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

            23. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and blood mercury level: a case-control study in chinese children

            Neuropediatrics, August 2006 – P.R. Kong [Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong].

            This study demonstrates that blood mercury levels are higher for children with ADHD.

            Excerpt: “There was significant difference in blood mercury levels between cases and controls, which persists after adjustment for age, gender and parental occupational status. The geometric mean blood mercury level was also significantly higher in children with inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD. High blood mercury level was associated with ADHD. Whether the relationship is causal requires further studies.”

            24. The Changing Prevalence of Autism In California

            Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, April 2003

            Mark F. Blaxill, David S. Baskin, and Walter O. Spitzer

            This study helps to refute the supposition made by some researchers that autism’s epidemic may only be due to “diagnostic substitution”.

            Excerpt: “They have suggested that ‘diagnostic substitution’ accounts for an apparent increase in the incidence of autism in California that is not real. This hypothesized substitution is not supported by proper and detailed analyses of the California data.”

            25. Mitochondrial Energy-Deficient Endophenotype in Autism

            American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (2): 198-207, 2008

            J. Jay Gargus and Faiqa Imtiaz
            Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Pediatrics, Section of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Arabian Diagnostics Laboratory, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre


            While evidence points to a multigenic etiology of most autism, the pathophysiology of the disorder has yet to be defined and the underlying genes and biochemical pathways they subserve remain unknown. Autism is considered to be influenced by a combination of various genetic, environmental and immunological factors; more recently, evidence has suggested that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be involved in the etiology of this multifactorial disorder. Furthermore, recent studies have pointed to a subset of autism associated with the biochemical endophenotype of mitochondrial energy deficiency, identified as a subtle impairment in fat and carbohydrate oxidation. This phenotype is similar, but more subtle than those seen in classic mitochondrial defects. In some cases the beginnings of the genetic underpinnings of these mitochondrial defects are emerging, such as mild mitochondrial dysfunction and secondary carnitine deficiency observed in the subset of autistic patients with an inverted duplication of chromosome 15q11-q13. In addition, rare cases of familial autism associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or associated with abnormalities in cellular calcium homeostasis, such as malignant hyperthermia or cardiac arrhythmia, are beginning to emerge. Such special cases suggest that the pathophysiology of autism may comprise pathways that are directly or indirectly involved in mitochondrial energy production and to further probe this connection three new avenues seem worthy of exploration: 1) metabolomic clinical studies provoking controlled aerobic exercise stress to expand the biochemical phenotype, 2) high-throughput expression arrays to directly survey activity of the genes underlying these biochemical pathways and 3) model systems, either based upon neuronal stem cells or model genetic organisms, to discover novel genetic and environmental inputs into these pathways.

            26. Bridging from Cells to Cognition in Autism Pathophysiology: Biological
            Pathways to Defective Brain Function and Plasticity

            American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (2): 167-176, 2008

            Matthew P. Anderson, Brian S. Hooker and Martha R. Herbert
            Departments of Neurology and Pathology, Harvard Medical School/Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, High Throughput Biology Team, Fundamental Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Pediatric Neurology/Center for Morphometric Analysis, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, and Center for Child and Adolescent Development, Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard Medical School

            Abstract: We review evidence to support a model where the disease process underlying autism may begin when an in utero or early postnatal environmental, infectious, seizure, or autoimmune insult triggers an immune response that increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the brain that leads to DNA damage (nuclear and mitochondrial) and metabolic enzyme blockade and that these inflammatory and oxidative stressors persist beyond early development (with potential further exacerbations), producing ongoing functional consequences. In organs with a high metabolic demand such as the central nervous system, the continued use of mitochondria with damaged DNA and impaired metabolic enzyme function may generate additional ROS which will cause persistent activation of the innate immune system leading to more ROS production. Such a mechanism would self-sustain and possibly progressively worsen. The mitochondrial dysfunction and altered redox signal transduction pathways found in autism would conspire to activate both astroglia and microglia. These activated cells can then initiate a broad-spectrum proinflammatory gene response. Beyond the direct effects of ROS on neuronal function, receptors on neurons that bind the inflammatory mediators may serve to inhibit neuronal signaling to protect them from excitotoxic damage during various pathologic
            insults (e.g., infection). In autism, over-zealous neuroinflammatory responses could not only influence neural developmental processes, but may more significantly impair neural signaling involved in cognition in an ongoing fashion. This model makes specific predictions in patients and experimental animal models and suggests a number of targets sites of intervention. Our model of potentially reversible pathophysiological mechanisms in autism motivates our hope that effective therapies may soon appear on the horizon.

            27. Heavy-Metal Toxicity—With Emphasis on Mercury

            John Neustadt, ND, and Steve Pieczenik, MD, PhD

            Research Review

            Conclusion: Metals are ubiquitous in our environment, and exposure to them is inevitable. However, not all people accumulate toxic levels of metals or exhibit symptoms of metal toxicity, suggesting that genetics play a role in their potential to damage health. Metal toxicity creates multisystem dysfunction, which appears to be mediated primarily through mitochondrial damage from glutathione depletion.
            Accurate screening can increase the likelihood that patients with potential metal toxicity are identified. The most accurate screening method for assessing chronic-metals exposure and metals load in the body is a provoked urine test.

            28. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism and Implications for Treatment

            American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (2): 208-217, 2008

            Daniel A. Rossignol, J. Jeffrey Bradstreet, International Child Development Resource Center,

            Abstract: Classical mitochondrial diseases occur in a subset of individuals with autism and are usually caused by genetic anomalies or mitochondrial respiratory pathway deficits. However, in many cases of autism, there is evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) without the classic features associated with mitochondrial disease. MtD appears to be more common in autism and presents with less severe signs and symptoms. It is not associated with discernable mitochondrial pathology in muscle biopsy specimens despite objective evidence of lowered mitochondrial functioning. Exposure to environmental toxins is the likely etiology for MtD in autism. This dysfunction then contributes to a number of diagnostic symptoms and comorbidities observed in autism including: cognitive impairment, language deficits, abnormal energy metabolism, chronic gastrointestinal problems, abnormalities in fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxidative stress. MtD and oxidative stress may also explain the high male to female ratio found in autism due to increased male vulnerability to these dysfunctions.
            Biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified, but seem widely under-utilized despite available therapeutic interventions. Nutritional supplementation to decrease oxidative stress along with factors to improve reduced glutathione, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) represent supported and rationale approaches. The underlying pathophysiology and autistic symptoms of affected individuals would be expected to either improve or cease worsening once effective treatment for MtD is implemented.

            29. Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence

            Health & Place, 2008

            Raymond F. Palmer, Stephen Blanchard, Robert Wood
            University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio Department of Family and Community Medicine, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio Texas, Chair, Department of Sociology

            This study should be viewed as hypothesis-generating – a first step in examining the potential role of environmental mercury and childhood developmental disorders. Nothing is known about specific exposure routes, dosage, timing, and individual susceptibility. We suspect that persistent low-dose exposures to various environmental toxicants, including mercury, that occur during critical windows of neural development among genetically susceptible children (with a diminished capacity for metabolizing accumulated toxicants) may increase the risk for developmental disorders such as autism. Successfully identifying the specific combination of environmental exposures and genetic susceptibilities can inform the development of targeted prevention intervention strategies.

            30. Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder in Portugal: prevalence, clinical characterization, and medical conditions

            Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2007

            Guiomar Oliveira MD PhD, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Criança, Hospital Pediátrico de Coimbra; Assunção Ataíde BSc, Direcção Regional de Educação do Centro Coimbra;
            Carla Marques MSc, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Criança, Hospital Pediátrico de Coimbra; Teresa S Miguel BSc, Direcção Regional de Educação do Centro, Coimbra;
            Ana Margarida Coutinho BSc, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras; Luísa Mota-Vieira PhD, Unidade de Genética e Patologia moleculares, Hospital do Divino Espírito Santo, Ponta Delgada, Açores; Esmeralda Gonçalves PhD; Nazaré Mendes Lopes PhD, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra; Vitor Rodrigues MD PhD; Henrique Carmona da Mota MD PhD, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra; Astrid Moura Vicente PhD, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal.
            *Correspondence to first author at Hospital Pediátrico de Coimbra, Av Bissaya Barreto, 3000-076 Coimbra, Portugal. E-mail: guiomar@hpc.chc.min-saude.pt

            Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands. Referred children were directly assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn), the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised, and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Clinical history and a laboratory investigation was performed. In parallel, a systematic multi-source search of children known to have autism was carried out in a restricted region. The global prevalence of ASD per 10 000 was 9.2 in mainland, and 15.6 in the Azores, with intriguing regional differences. A diversity of associated medical conditions was documented in 20%, with an unexpectedly high rate of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders.

      • Jennifer May 15, 2016

        Yes, please, Brian. Show Us the Study that demonstrates an equal number (percentile) of unvaccinated children develop autism as those who are vaccinated. Take your time…and make sure it’s what I’ve asked for, please.

        • V May 15, 2016

          This one is for Brian (This is a break down of the studies he listed) and any one who wants information. http://fourteenstudies.org/studies.html

          This is a great source to fight astroturfing, Pseudo-Science Pharmademons.

          Below please find a list of the studies used to support the false assertion that vaccines do not cause autism. Please note that many of these studies are being made available on the Web for the first time.

          As mentioned in our The Right Question section, we contend that not one of these studies asks the right questions to address the very common issue that we hear reports of every day:

          A parent takes their child to the pediatrician. The child receives multiple vaccines. The parents report that the child changes after the appointment, and the child is later diagnosed with autism.

          By not trying to understand what is happening to these children, these studies appear to have been done to provide “cover” to the vaccine program, much the same way early studies of cigarettes and lung cancer always showed no link, supporting the position of the tobacco companies.

          In this section, we have divided the studies into two parts: studies addressing Thimerosal (mercury) in vaccines, and studies addressing a single vaccine, the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella). We have rank-ordered the studies by our assessment of how commonly they are referred to in the press. To read the entire study, click on the study title.

          Below the title of each study, we have highlighted the conflicts section of each study. Please note that in our next section, Studies Ranked, we go into considerably more detail about each individual study.

          This is from http://fourteenstudies.org/studies.html

      • elnura1 May 15, 2016

        Please provide data.

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